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Table 3 Summary of contributions included in this special issue (in alphabetical order)

From: Corporate headquarters in the twenty-first century: an organization design perspective

Author(s) Article type Research streams CHQ design focus Key insights for CHQ research (may contain direct quotes) Phenomena Methods (used and implied) Theoretical perspectives
Asakawa (2020) Research International business CHQ roles
CHQ structure
Knowledge sharing patterns differ by the type of HQ a subsidiary reports to, i.e., corporate R&D HQ, top management, DHQ, and RHQ Disaggregation/complexity Quantitative; survey multi-level Knowledge-based view (KBV)
Baldwin (2019) Research Organization studies CHQ roles The technology of a flow process with bottlenecks rewards unified governance, a hierarchical structure, and the use of direct authority, which characterize “modern” industrial corporations with central CHQ Technology
Organizational forms
Historical methods Theories of organizational design and production
Campbell (2020) Commentary Strategic management Various Presents several lessons learned related to why CHQ design is important, why it also involves strategy work, what activities are needed at the CHQ level, and the problem of subtracted value Dynamics and processes n.a Practice perspectives
Chasserio and Botte (2020) Case study Strategic management Various Describes a CHQ transformation that has developed its own participative method with strong reliance on internal resources and an intensive pace of change Dynamics and processes Case study temporal and process methods Practice perspectives
Dellestrand et al. (2020) Research International business CHQ roles The resource allocation process corresponds to different resource allocation strategies of headquarters (winner-picking and cross-subsidization) and subsidiary behavior (collaboration or competition) Resource allocation
Internal relations
Conceptual Contingency theory / complementary fit
Foss (2019) Point of view Organizational economics CHQ personnel A better understanding of the CHQ furthers our understanding of the link between TMT and the rest of the organization, and improves our understanding of the costs and benefits of hierarchical organization People
Internal hierarchy
Organizational economics
Kim and Wu (2019) Research Strategic management CHQ location CHQ proximity to the firms´ entrepreneurial alliance partners has a positive influence on the innovation performance (Inter-) Organizational forms Quantitative; secondary data KBV
Laamanen (2019) Point of view Strategic management CHQ design Developing a better understanding of the dynamics of attention between the different subsidiaries and the increasingly dispersed and disaggregated headquarters activities in MNCs requires a more dynamic view of attention Disaggregation/complexity n.a
Temporal and process methods
Behavioral (ABV)
Lunnan et al. (2019) Research International business CHQ roles Relationship atmosphere reduces organizing costs, distance increases bargaining costs; centralization and formalization reduce information costs, social integration increases bargaining costs Coordination, control
Internal relations
Quantitative; survey Transaction cost economics
Agency theory
Schmitt et al. (2019) Point of view International business CHQ personnel
CHQ processes and systems
CHQ expect to become more powerful and more involved in subunits. CHQ should put emphasis on social interactions for data to be effectively collected and analyzed, for decision-making power to be adequately allocated, and for CHQ involvement to be informed and necessary Technology; decision-making (biases) Illustrative; survey Behavioral/micro-foundations
Sharer (2019) Commentary Organization studies Various CHQ is a physical place with implications for culture and work processes of the firm and a set of processes and strategies that define how work gets done and employees and leadership groups interact. These elements of hardware and software must be designed and operated together Various: physical place, culture n.a
Practice perspectives
Verbeke and Yuan (2020) Point of view International business CHQ personnel Motivations and abilities determine whether CHQ intervene in subsidiary initiatives and effectiveness of such intervention. Contextual analyses at the MNE level and analyses of individual decision-makers need to be combined when exploring the underlying micro-foundational mechanisms of decisions Disaggregation/complexity n.a