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Table 3 Data structure underlying theoretical category of orders of worth

From: Design as an interactive boundary object

Illustrative quotes First-order codes Second-order themes
A number of aspects [define a good code]. One [is] efficiency in terms of the amount of memory or processor time—space–time are [the] two aspects of efficiency. (computer scientist)
We’ve got too many products already out there. There’s not enough commonality. How do we get better? How do we standardize that? How do we consolidate it?” …to try and get cost savings that are efficiency-reduced complexity? (mechanical engineer)
There’s no reason you couldn’t do that to say “is this an efficient courtroom design layout” from some automated calculation. (architectural engineer)
Product efficiency Product oriented orders of worth
But I like the idea that we concentrate more on designing fewer things and more beautiful things (engineering designer 4)
If you look at what goes into a really polished app, it would include things like good artwork (computer scientist)
So design typically involves coming up with something that has maybe an aesthetic appeal (industrial psychologist)
Visual and symbolic beauty
So a design is a new description, so there is a concept of newness. (management expert 2)
Maybe the redemption of the computer is that we need to find ways to—to tweak it and use it in ways that it was never intended to be used. (architect)
But what I really like studying is the people and places that come up with new and different things and to me that’s always going to be interesting. (industrial psychologist)
Novelty
There is a philosophy that is aligned with the research that I do that says at least some aspects of design can be driven by what customers want. (management expert 2)
Then we go look [to] capturing customer needs—how do we convert those into requirements to drive the design (engineering designer 3)
I am trained to help people conceptualize what their inventions—and in this case we might even extend that to designs—help capture them as property rights and potentially exploit them. I also think about how that is likely to impact business (patent lawyer)
Market success
We’ll look at the interaction of the product and the person. So it can be anything from comfort—to the interaction in terms of fun factor. Engagement is a really important factor. (engineering designer 2)
Another aspect of design that I’ve gotten into more [is] user interface design, you’ve got to think about “well, how is the user going to interact with this? How is that going to happen?” (computer scientist)
Interactivity
I do engineering design research. And to me, that means what methods and tools, [and] processes make designers more efficient or effective. (mechanical engineer)
[I have] done a lot of research in building information modeling providing practical guidance to project teams to design efficient BIM implementation strategies [and] written and developed guides that allow people to design a process for modeling for a project. (architectural engineer)
Process efficiency Process oriented orders of worth
We did the creative campus project—it was engineering, architecture, landscape architecture and dance …very interesting project of trying to get all those groups working together [which] was fun. (mechanical engineer)
Well I think what [interactions have] done is it’s helped me understand design as done in different disciplines (engineering designer 3)
Interdisciplinary interactions
Engineers are notoriously bad [laughs] at understanding how important design is, because most of our curriculum here never addresses that. (computer scientist)
Design specifically, I think I didn’t understand as much. And so that’s kind of what motivated me towards thinking about design and things like that more formally. (civil engineer)
I think if it [design] ultimately lies somewhere it’s at the overlap of disciplines. I don’t think any discipline owns it nor should they, with it being as broad and applicable as it is to everyone. (industrial psychologist)
Reflexivity