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Table 2 Data structure underlying theoretical category of practices

From: Design as an interactive boundary object

Illustrative quotes First-order codes Second-order themes
When we teach design as a faculty group one of the funniest things is we hate projects that don’t have spreadsheets, graphs and equations. We don’t think its design unless it has spreadsheets, graphs and equations and analysis and stuff like that. (engineering designer 4)
[What are the words that come to your mind when you think about design?]
Innovation, time to innovation, evaluation, simulation, fidelity of representation, understanding, risk—so all these things. (civil engineer)
[H]ow do you drive that model to explore the different options and tradeoff between this set of features versus that set of features, the costs, reliability. And so from a—from a design perspective—it’s optimization, it’s visualization, those sort of things (mechanical engineer)
Design using quantitative tools such as ‘equations’, ‘simulations’, statistical ‘models’, ‘algorithms’, ‘optimization’, etc. Design tools
My training was hand drawing entirely, and doing everything through sketching. (architect)
[S]o you have to design a site layout, that would allow for you to deliver the project per your schedule but also make sure you don’t violate anything that the owner may have as a requirement or a need (architectural engineer)
I try to create an environment where when we brainstorm ideas the weirdest and goofiest ones are welcomed. (industrial psychologist)
Design using qualitative tools such as ‘sketches’, ‘studio’, ‘brainstorming’, ‘diagrams’, ‘maps’, ‘layouts’, etc.
We're trying to make students understand that before you can actually get to a physical design you have to understand the problem. (engineering designer 1)
Design is just making an attempt to meet some objective (management expert 2)
[D]esign is part of the process of both understanding the user’s needs and requirements (industrial engineer)
Design as problem solving including meeting ‘objectives’ and ‘requirements’, and establishing functionality Design approaches
I think it’s a constantly evolving process and no—even legally it doesn’t end. I mean there are ways the legal process keeps moving not just with a single idea that might get litigated but ideas can be pursued as follow-on inventions and creativities that iterate a process (patent lawyer)
It’s really emphasizing how important design is, to get it right, because it’s something you’re going to live with—for any of the long-lived software (computer scientist)
You can evaluate a design after three months, after six months and after a year and after ten years and it can succeed in a lot of different ways and fail in a lot of different ways. So you cannot anticipate all the ways in which the design will get used. (engineering designer 4)
Design as open-ended engagement and constantly ‘evolving’, ‘changing’, having a ‘life’, etc.
And, how do we convert those [customer needs] into requirements to drive the design? By having some processes to develop various concepts, selecting those concepts, prototyping them and eventually to the final design. And, it is highly iterative. I mean at any point you may need to go back. (engineering designer 3)
[I]nnovation is defined as the implementation of creative ideas, [you] come up with a new and different idea, sketch it out, prototype it, [and then] actually see it made, implemented and tested. (industrial psychologist)
Interaction with material artifacts such as ‘prototypes’, and ‘mockups’ Interactions
So I interact with a lot of discipline specific designers, so circuit designers, mechanical hardware designers, spacecraft mechanism designers [and] with other systems engineers. (engineering designer 3)
We led—the series of workshops a couple of years ago on interdisciplinary design [which] was really good exposure to—how does architecture come at the problem versus industrial design versus engineering design versus IST or somebody else? (mechanical engineer)
I study designers …And so my interaction with them is really learning what they do and what their process is like and how it differs from the traditional engineering model and how it can kind of incorporate some of that back together. (engineering designer 2)
Interaction with designers outside of one’s own discipline