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Table 7 Reporting to different types of HQ and subsidiaries’ internal knowledge sharing (IKS) (OLS, N=99)

From: Disaggregating the headquarters: implications for overseas R&D subsidiaries’ reporting and the subsidiaries’ knowledge-sharing patterns

D.V. Internal Knowledge Sharing (IKS)
Model 5 Model 6 Model 7 Model 8a Model 8b Model 8c
Constant 2.251*** 2.313*** 2.320*** 2.317*** 2.177*** 2.393***
-0.515 (0.528) (0.550) (0.569) (0.577) (0.556)
Control variable
 Industry 0.503* 0.537* 0.491† 0.491† 0.513* 0.457†
(0.249) (0.257) (0.255) (0.256) (0.257) (0.258)
 Age -0.227 -0.235 -0.189 -0.189 -0.192 -0.193
(0.165) (0.166) (0.162) (0.164) (0.163) (0.163)
 Size 0.157* 0.161* 0.182* 0.182* 0.181* 0.174*
(0.071) (0.071) (0.070) (0.070) (0.070) (0.070)
 Western dummy 0.207 0.248 0.150 0.149 0.141 0.116
(0.222) (0.234) (0.233) (0.238) (0.234) (0.236)
 R&D-Sales ratio 0.106 0.123 -0.050 -0.045 -0.354 0.359
(2.305) (2.313) (2.262) (2.289) (2.295) (2.306)
 Overseas sales ratio 0.199 0.164 0.175 0.177 0.345 0.251
(0.635) (0.640) (0.629) (0.639) (0.663) (0.635)
 Single region dummy -1.391* -1.404* -1.477* -1.477* -1.563** -1.488*
(0.587) (0.589) (0.577) (0.580) (0.587) (0.577)
Moderator
 “R Task”   -0.126 -0.117 -0.115 0.010 -0.216
  (0.216) (0.225) (0.240) (0.272) (0.249)
Independent variable
 Top management    0.551 0.562 0.570 0.549
   (0.383) (0.632) (0.384) (0.383)
 Divisional HQ    -0.084 -0.083 0.082 -0.137
   (0.256) (0.260) (0.326) (0.263)
 Regional HQ    -0.538* -0.538* -0.516† -0.843*
   (0.269) (0.270) (0.270) (0.424)
 Corporate R&D HQ [baseline]       
Interaction term
 R Task * Top management     -0.018   
    (0.765)   
 R Task * Divisional HQ      -0.402  
     (0.485)  
 R Task * Regional HQ       0.486
      (0.522)
Max VIF 1.306 1.306 1.567 3.192 2.522 3.159
0.159 0.162 0.232 0.232 0.238 0.240
Adj R² 0.094 0.087 0.135 0.125 0.132 0.134
df 7 8 11 12 12 12
F 2.452 2.172 2.389 2.165 2.239 2.259
sig 0.024 0.037 0.012 0.021 0.016 0.015
  1. Standard Errors in parentheses; *** p<0.001; ** p<0.01; * p<0.05; † p<0.10
  2. ※ The coefficients and the signs of the independent variables indicate the differing effects of each independent variable relative to corporate R&D HQ as a baseline