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Table 6 Reporting to different types of HQ and subsidiaries’ external knowledge sharing (EKS) (OLS, N=99)

From: Disaggregating the headquarters: implications for overseas R&D subsidiaries’ reporting and the subsidiaries’ knowledge-sharing patterns

D.V. External Knowledge Sharing (EKS)
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4a Model 4b Model 4c
Constant 2.221*** 1.913*** 2.340*** 2.399*** 2.045*** 2.471***
-0.468 (0.453) (0.473) (0.489) (0.487) (0.469)
Control variable
 Industry -0.083 -0.246 -0.140 -0.139 -0.095 -0.201
(0.226) (0.220) (0.219) (0.220) (0.217) (0.218)
 Age -0.195 -0.152 -0.169 -0.175 -0.175 -0.175
(0.149) (0.142) (0.140) (0.141) (0.137) (0.137)
 Size 0.130* 0.113† 0.198 0.096 0.097 0.083
(0.064) (0.061) (0.060) (0.060) (0.059) (0.059)
 Western dummy 0.443* 0.242 0.185 0.204 0.166 0.124
(0.201) (0.200) (0.200) (0.205) (0.197) (0.199)
 R&D-Sales ratio -0.676 -0.759 -1.124 -1.233 -1.749 -0.384
(2.091) (1.983) (1.945) (1.965) (1.937) (1.948)
 Overseas sales ratio -0.341 -0.172 -0.105 -0.145 0.245 0.133
(0.576) (0.548) (0.541) (0.549) (0.559) (0.536)
 Single region dummy -0.097 -0.035 0.016 0.019 -0.161 -0.005
(0.532) (0.505) (0.496) (0.498) (0.495) (0.488)
Moderator
 “R Task”   0.617*** 0.431* 0.397† 0.692** 0.252
  (0.185) (0.193) (0.206) (0.230) (0.210)
Independent variable
 Top management    -0.443 -0.661 -0.404 -0.446
   (0.329) (0.542) (0.324) (0.324)
 Divisional HQ    -0.567* -0.580* -0.225 -0.664**
   (0.220) (0.223) (0.275) (0.222)
 Regional HQ    -0.126 -0.129 -0.081 -0.679†
   (0.231) (0.232) (0.228) (0.358)
 Corporate R&D HQ [baseline]       
Interaction term
 R Task * Top management     0.333   
    (0.657)   
 R Task * Divisional HQ      -0.826*  
     (0.409)  
 R Task * Regional HQ       0.880*
      (0.441)
Max VIF 1.306 1.306 1.567 3.192 2.522 3.159
0.101 0.200 0.263 0.265 0.296 0.296
Adj R² 0.032 0.129 0.170 0.163 0.198 0.197
df 7 8 11 12 12 12
F 1.465 2.819 2.822 2.586 3.018 3.008
sig 0.190 0.008 0.003 0.006 0.001 0.001
  1. Standard Errors in parentheses; *** p<0.001; ** p<0.01; * p<0.05; † p<0.10
  2. ※ The coefficients and the signs of the independent variables indicate the differing effects of each independent variable relative to corporate R&D HQ as a baseline