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Table 2 Measures of the independent and control variables

From: Disaggregating the headquarters: implications for overseas R&D subsidiaries’ reporting and the subsidiaries’ knowledge-sharing patterns

Type Item Description
Control variable Industry dummy 1 for pharmaceutical/chemical, 0 otherwise
Subsidiary age years in operation, in natural logarithm (Ln)
Subsidiary size number of R&D staff, excluding the administrative staff: 1 (0~19), 2 (20~39), 3 (40~59), 4 (60~79), 5 (80~).
Western dummy 1 for North America and Europe, 0 otherwise
R&D-Sales ratio R&D to sales ratio at the parent company
Overseas sales ratio Overseas sales ratio at the parent company
Single region dummy 1 for the parent company with single regional operations, 0 otherwise
Moderator “R task” 1 for basic or applied research, 0 otherwise
Independent variable Corporate R&D HQ 1 for Reporting to corporate R&D HQ, 0 otherwise (as a baseline for comparison)
Top management 1 for reporting to top management, 0 otherwise
Divisional HQ 1 for reporting to divisional HQ, 0 otherwise
Regional HQ 1 for reporting to Regional HQ, 0 otherwise