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Table 4 Summary of hypotheses with empirical results. The three hypotheses are categorized by their related corporate characteristics. The script τ is the coefficient of the key variable defined in Eq. (1)

From: Extending the role of headquarters beyond the firm boundary: entrepreneurial alliance innovation

  Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 3
Corporate characteristic CHQ location proximity (vs. distant) CHQ function:
R&D (vs. no R&D)
Alliance form: horizontal (vs. vertical)
Key variable Distance CHQ to Startup Distance CHQ to Startup
× CHQ R&D Function
Distance CHQ to Startup
× CHQ R&D Function
× Horizontal Alliance
Prediction τ > 0 τ < 0 τ < 0
  Benefit of proximity Attenuated benefit of proximity Further attenuated benefit of proximity
Finding \( \hat{\tau}>0 \)
(p < 0.10)
\( \hat{\tau}<0 \)
(p < 0.01)
\( \hat{\tau}<0 \)
(p < 0.10)
Support Yes Yes Yes