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Table 2 Summary statistics. This table shows the summary statistics of the variables for 1478 startup–incumbent–year dyads

From: Extending the role of headquarters beyond the firm boundary: entrepreneurial alliance innovation

  Mean SD Min Max
Dependent variable
Forward Citation Count 36.13 88.38 0 598
Main independent variable
Distance CHQ to Startup 2.10 1.69 0.00 4.35
Moderator variables
CHQ R&D Function 0.34 0.47 0 1
Horizontal Alliance 0.10 0.29 0 1
Control variables
CHQ Consolidated 0.61 0.49 0 1
Distance Subsidiary to Startup (Closest) 2.14 1.63 0.00 4.24
Alliance Exploitation 0.27 0.44 0 1
Alliance Equity and Joint Venture 0.16 0.37 0 1
Alliance Duration 3.34 1.67 1 6
Incumbent Subsidiary Dispersion 29.95 24.28 0 89
Incumbent Portfolio Dispersion 5.40 2.78 1 11
Incumbent Patent Count (Five-Year Lagged) 245.37 1867.06 1 29,433
Incumbent Age 67.99 53.45 0 160
Incumbent Size (Logged) 6.61 1.57 1.10 8.92
Incumbent Acquired 0.01 0.10 0 1
Startup Portfolio Dispersion 0.01 0.12 0 1
Startup Patent Count (Five-Year Lagged) 20.03 42.29 1 438
Startup Age 17.31 23.34 0 159
Startup Size (Binary) 0.62 0.48 0 1
Startup Manufacturing 0.60 0.49 0 1
Startup Capital Investment (Cumulative) 7.18 25.90 0.00 172.77
Robustness check independent variables
Startup Patent Count (One-Year Lagged) 20.33 37.05 1 438
Cumulative Startup Patent Count (One-Year Lagged) 294.36 604.14 4 3070