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Table 3 Different empirical research designs used for ecosystem research

From: Ecosystems: broadening the locus of value creation

Representative studies Ecosystem construct Setting Selected data sources Operationalization of ecosystem construct
Ethiraj (2007) Bottleneck Personal computer (PC) components Industry journals, PC Magazine, and PC World Component constraints identified in the product reviews
Adner and Kapoor (2010) Bottleneck (suppliers, complementors) Semiconductor lithography Industry journal, Solid State Technology; Interviews Count of articles that discuss the technical problems in components and complements
Kapoor and Lee (2013) Organizational form for complementors Healthcare American Hospital Association annual surveys Hospital-physician organizational form (arm’s length, alliance, integrated)
Hannah and Eisenhardt (2017) Bottleneck Residential solar system Interviews; newspaper and magazine articles, blogs, analyst reports Component that most constrains the growth or performance of the ecosystem due to poor quality, poor performance, or short supply
Kapoor and Furr (2015) Bottleneck Solar photovoltaic (PV) Industry journal, Photon International annual equipment surveys Commercially availability of deposition and contact equipment in an emerging industry
Zobel et al. (2017) Bottleneck Solar photovoltaic (PV) PV Insights, Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Fraunhofer ISE Share of cost for components and complements in solar PV systems (BOS)
Toh and Miller (2017) Complements Communications equipment Patents Jointly cited patents from different patent classes
Kapoor and Agarwal (2017) Platform-ecosystem complexity Smartphone comScore US smartphone-installed base database Sum of the squares of the monthly shares of the US-installed base for smartphone OEMs
Wen and Zhu (2017) Platform complementors’ innovation and pricing strategy Smartphone Mobile app analytics firm Updates to smartphone app and app pricing
Agarwal and Kapoor (2018) Platform complementors’ connectedness Smartphone Apple iTunes App’s connection with platform components/modules and other apps