|Strategic alliances||Strategic networks||Business ecosystems|
Voluntary arrangements between firms involving exchange, sharing, or codevelopment of products,|
technologies, or services (Gulati 1998).
|Strategic networks are composed of interorganizational ties that are enduring, are of strategic significance for the firms entering them, and include strategic alliances, joint ventures, long-term buyer-supplier partnerships, and a host of similar ties (Gulati, Nohria, and Zaheer, 2000)||Set of actors that contribute to the user value proposition of a focal product or service, designed with or without a platform-based technological architecture|
|Connections between firms||Alliance||Alliance||Interdependence between activities/technologies|
|Unit of analysis||Firm or alliance||Firm or network (typically alliance)||Innovation or firm or ecosystem|
|Key theoretical considerations||Alliance governance (formal/relational), alliance capability, partners’ resources||Structure of ties, access to information, status, brokerage (information, resources), embeddedness||Structure of interdependence (technology, inputs-outputs), complements, bottlenecks, platforms|