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Table 1 Considerations for ecosystem research

From: Ecosystems: broadening the locus of value creation

Level Definition Example (electric car ecosystem) Example (smartphone ecosystem)
Activities Tasks that underlie the different offers that contribute to the focal offer’s user value proposition Electric car manufacturing, battery manufacturing, installation of charging stations, maintenance, and repair Handset manufacturing, hardware component manufacturing, operating system development, software applications development, wireless service provision
Actors Agents who undertake activities and produce the different offers Electric car manufacturers, battery manufacturers, charging service providers, garages Manufacturers of hardware components and handsets, developers of operating system and software applications, providers of wireless service
Architectures Technological interactions between offers and input-output flow interactions between actors Product-based; battery and electric car, charging station and electric car; battery manufacturers as suppliers and charging service providers, and garages as complementors Platform-based between apps and operating system. Product-based between hardware components, wireless service, and handset; app developers as platform-based complementors, wireless service providers as product-based complementors, hardware component manufacturers as suppliers