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Table 7 Contributions of the Organization Zoo

From: Research in Journal Of Organization Design, 2012–2018

Study Contribution
Puranam and Håkonsson (2015) Valve Corporation, a gaming company, does not use a formal hierarchy for control and coordination. Seven commentaries on this case explore what a “boss-less” company means for organization theory and design.
Burton et al. (2017) GitHub, a software company, operated for 7 years without a hierarchy. Suddenly, it installed one. Four commentaries examine the role of hierarchy in organizations.