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Table 1 Organizational evolution in different historical eras (adapted from Miles et al. 1997)

From: Design, Perception and Behavior in the Innovation Era: Revisiting the Concept of Interdependence

  Organizational evolution
Historical era Standardization Customization Innovation
Key design variables Hierarchy, centralized authority Network Teams, autonomous cells
Dominant organization design Functional design Divisional design, matrix No dominant design
Key resource Capital goods Information Knowledge
Influential manager Chief operating officer Chief information officer Chief knowledge officer
Core capability Specialization and segmentation Flexibility and responsiveness Design and creativity