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Table 1 Digital applications used in leading digital firms

From: Designing the digital organization

Target area Goal Leading digital firms and their industries
Customer experiences Customer co-creation of products and services Customer engagement and loyalty Customized offerings Burberry (clothing) Starbucks (specialty retailing) Caesars (gambling and entertainment)
Internal operations Increased efficiency Lower costs Greater speed Higher quality Asian Paints (paint and adhesives) Codelco (mining)
Business models Reinventing industries Substituting products or services Creating new digital businesses Reconfiguring value delivery models Rethinking value propositions Market design Airbnb (private lodging) Uber (taxi services) Amazon (online retailing) UPS (logistics services)
Product design and development Intelligent product design User-driven innovation Fujitsu (electronics) Nike (athletic shoes and apparel) Lego (toys)
Organizing Agile organizations Collaborative processes Non-hierarchical means of control and coordination IBM (technology and consulting) Accenture (professional services) NATO military forces (national defense)
  1. Source: Adapted from Westerman et al. (2014)