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Table 1 Digital applications used in leading digital firms

From: Designing the digital organization

Target area Goal Leading digital firms and their industries
Customer experiences Customer co-creation of products and services
Customer engagement and loyalty
Customized offerings
Burberry (clothing)
Starbucks (specialty retailing)
Caesars (gambling and entertainment)
Internal operations Increased efficiency
Lower costs
Greater speed
Higher quality
Asian Paints (paint and adhesives)
Codelco (mining)
Business models Reinventing industries
Substituting products or services
Creating new digital businesses
Reconfiguring value delivery models
Rethinking value propositions
Market design
Airbnb (private lodging)
Uber (taxi services)
Amazon (online retailing)
UPS (logistics services)
Product design and development Intelligent product design
User-driven innovation
Fujitsu (electronics)
Nike (athletic shoes and apparel)
Lego (toys)
Organizing Agile organizations
Collaborative processes
Non-hierarchical means of control and coordination
IBM (technology and consulting)
Accenture (professional services)
NATO military forces (national defense)
  1. Source: Adapted from Westerman et al. (2014)